Is CBD Oil Flammable

Did you know that CBD oil can come from hemp or marijuana? Most CBD oil does contain THC which is a psychoactive chemical. Will it get you high? Learn more. Cannabis oil This is a less commonly used form of marijuana compared to hashish and herbal cannabis . However, it is much more potent than these two forms of marijuana and contains a high Everyone is talking about CBD Oil. But what is it? Where does it come from? Find out more about this versatile medicine.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD oil is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from a cannabis or hemp plant and can vary in levels of other cannabinoids or plant compounds. In Australia, CBD oil is legal both via prescription by a doctor and over the counter in pharmacies Australia wide.

Tom Brown
  1. CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in the cannabis plant.
  2. CBD oil is created by extracting CBD and other chemical compounds from the cannabis or hemp plant.
  3. While some CBD oil contains THC, it will not get you high.

CBD (Cannabidiol)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

CBD Oil In Australia

There are many reasons you might want to learn about CBD oil (cannabidiol oil). When you look at the cannabis industry, CBD oil is still one of the most talked-about topics. People throw around the term CBD regularly with relation to medical cannabis; Frequently these same individuals don’t actually know what CBD oil is.

In Australia, there are various types of CBD oil available by prescription. And, as of Feb 1, 2021, low dose CBD oil is legal in pharmacies only (not online). And, we won’t actually see CBD oil over the counter until 2022 and onward.

Even so, there are online shops that claim to sell CBD oil in Australia. While they probably are selling some sort of CBD, it’s not legal.

Whether you have heard friends or family talking about CBD, you think it might benefit you for a medical condition, or you feel like it’s a good supplement for your health and wellness regime, this article is for you. In this article, you’ll learn answers to the following questions:

What is CBD Oil?

To answer the question, “What is CBD Oil,” you first need to know what CBD is.

CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a natural and non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant and is abundant in hemp. CBD is one of cannabis’s non-psychoactive compounds. There is clinical evidence documenting the value that CBD has in treating some neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e. epilepsy, anxiety and schizophrenia). There are also hundreds of thousands of cases, real-world evidence rather than clinical evidence, where CBD oil and other CBD products are said to have helped people (and pets) with numerous other medical conditions.

So, what is CBD Oil?

CBD oil, or cannabidiol oil, is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from a cannabis or hemp plant. The result is an oil that contains high concentrations of CBD and can vary in levels of other cannabinoids or plant compounds.

People use the term CBD to encompass many types of CBD extracts, and the use of the name has started to confuse people. CBD oils may have a range of cannabinoid profiles and medicinal or health benefits. It can come in any of the following product forms:

  • Capsules
  • Oil
  • Tinctures
  • Vape oils
  • Edibles

There are also multiple types of CBD oil, including the following:

  • PCR hemp oil or PCR CBD oil
  • Full-Spectrum CBD
  • Broad-spectrum CBD
  • CBD Isolate

Later in this article, we’ll explain the different processes used to make CBD oil. The different types of oils have various chemical properties and benefits. Each type of CBD oil will suit different needs and requirements based on what profiles you want. We’ll discuss each of the types of CBD oil in-depth in the next article so you understand the pros and cons and can decide if one of them may be right for you.

Where does CBD (cannabidiol) come from?

Unlike other chemicals in cannabis, like flavonoids and terpenes, cannabidiol only exists in the cannabis plant. When we say the cannabis plant, we mean both hemp and what people think of as marijuana. For the remainder of this article, we’ll call “marijuana” cannabis and hemp…hemp. While hemp and cannabis come from the same species of plant, their cannabinoid and terpene profiles are different. As each type of plant has different chemical compound profiles, the CBD oils that come from each of the plants also have different profiles.

For example, hemp plants have very low levels of THC to begin with, usually .035% or less in Australia. So, for individuals who want to avoid THC, CBD from hemp may be a better option. Hemp also has a different spectrum of compounds which means that the therapeutic benefits may be different from other plants.

Cannabis plants produce a broader range of cannabinoids and other compounds, particularly THC. Until recently, hemp farmers had to grow vast amounts of hemp to produce CBD oil. Now hemp farmers are growing PCR (phytocannabinoid-rich) hemp plants which allow for smaller crops containing higher CBD yields.

How is CBD oil made?

In this section, we’ll give you an overview of CBD extraction methods. While these processes are incredibly detailed, we’ll give you the essential information, so you know what to look out for. There are multiple ways that CBD can be extracted from the cannabis or hemp plant and turned into CBD oil. The three most popular ways to extract CBD are:

  1. A CO2 extraction
  2. Oil Extractions
  3. A liquid solvent extraction

CO2 (carbon dioxide) Extraction Method

The CBD industry has grown rapidly over the past few years. With industry growth an the number of businesses making CBD, the CO2 (carbon dioxide) extraction method has become the most technically advanced and recommended way to make CBD oil. While it’s the most expensive of the popular methods, it makes the most potent, safe, and chlorophyll-free extraction. There are three types of CO2 extraction – supercritical, subcritical and mid-critical. We’ll cover supercritical, the most popular.

Supercritical CO2 extraction method

CO2 is usually a gas. Supercritical CO2 forms when CO2 is heated above 31.10C and put under pressure at 1071psi. It then takes on properties of both the gas and liquid (known as a supercritical liquid). Typically this process is done using a ‘closed-loop extractor’; a machine which has three main chambers and manipulates the CO2 states as well as extracts the cannabinoids and other compounds.

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The process starts by putting ground cannabis into a container. Solid CO2, dry ice, is then pumped into the vessel and is converted from CO2 to Supercritical CO2 as it enters the chamber. The Supercritical CO2 runs through the plant materials and extracts the cannabinoids, trichomes and terpenes. The mixture is pumped into the third chamber where the contents are separated. The oil is then collected and the CO2 flows back to the original vessel for re-use.

Supercritical oil extraction kills off bacteria, mould and other contaminants left in CBD oil during other methods of extraction. This means that CO2 extracted CBD is likely better for those who already have compromised immune systems

Oil extraction method

The oil extraction method, typically olive oil, is one of the oldest extraction methods used today. People even use this extraction method at home. The first step to olive oil extraction is to decarboxylate the plant material. Decarboxylation is heating the plant to a specific temperature so that the chemical compounds become activated. Once the plant matter is decarboxylated, the oil and plant are mixed and heated again.

The cannabinoids are extracted when the oil and plant are heated together. Because the oils don’t evaporate, the resulting extract isn’t as concentrated as other methods. The main issue with oil extractions is that the oils are perishable and therefore must be stored in a cool and dry area which puts restrictions on consumers.

Liquid solvent extraction method

Solvent extractions often use low-grade alcohol, like ethanol or isopropyl, to extract the CBD. Solvent extraction is one of the cheaper and more dangerous ways to extract CBD as the chemicals used are highly flammable. This method often dissolves the plant waxes, which contain nutrients and may also extract chlorophyll which can give the CBD a bitter taste. While filtering removes chlorophyll, the filtering also reduces the oil’s potency.

After harvesting, the cannabis or hemp is placed in a container where the cannabinoids are extracted. The plants are either soaked or have the solvents run through the materials, stripping the cannabinoids from the plant. Once complete, the liquid is then put through an evaporation process where it’s heated and leaves the cannabinoid concentrates in an oil form. In some cases, solvent residue exists post evaporation. These residues can be harmful to humans, and some studies have found traces of petroleum and other nasties in CBDs from solvent extractions.

After any extraction process, the resulting oil has all of the cannabinoids and other compounds that weren’t lost in the process. The initial oil extraction is called full-spectrum oil. The extraction is then refined and purified to make CBD isolate or broad-spectrum oil.

Now that you understand how CBD oil is made, you know what to say when speaking with your doctor or when looking for the product that’s right for you.

From a medical standpoint, doctors can prescribe CBD only medication, CBD and THC medication and THC only medications. A THC only medication is not CBD oil.

Critical Note: Roadside drug tests in Australia, tongue tests, look for the presence of THC. If you have a CBD oil that contains even trace amounts of THC, you may test positive for THC in a roadside test. The presence of THC in your system does not necessarily mean you’re impaired. You can learn more about CBD, cannabis and driving in our article about cannabis and driving.

Conclusion

In conclusion, CBD oil is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from cannabis or hemp plants. It contains a high quantity of CBD and may contain very little or no THC. Depending on what type of plant, cannabis or hemp, and the method of extraction, the CBD oil you get will have different medicinal properties. CO2 extraction is the cleanest method of creating CBD oil but will also be the most expensive.

In the next part of our guide to CBD oil series, you’ll learn about how CBD oil works on your body and what the effects and benefits of taking CBD oil are.

Cannabis oil

This is a less commonly used form of marijuana compared to hashish and herbal cannabis. However, it is much more potent than these two forms of marijuana and contains a high level of ‘tetrahydrocannabinols’ (THC’s).

THC’s are the chemical responsible for a range of effects on the brain. These include heightened awareness of sounds and colours and euphoria (or ‘high’), or a pleasant drowsy feeling (or ‘stoned’).

This is the strongest form of marijuana available.

Cannabis oil is often known as ‘hash oil’.

What is cannabis oil?

It is a sticky, red or dark caramel coloured substance which contains high levels of THC’s and several other chemicals.

It is produced by using solvents, e.g. butane, to separate resin from the cannabis plant.

High quality oil is dark red or gold coloured with the appearance and texture of honey. As a result of that it is sometimes known as ‘honey oil’.

Producing cannabis oil

Most of this oil is produced without the proper equipment or conditions, e.g. laboratory set up. So, most producers of hash oil use solvents to control the amount and quality of cannabis oil created.

The criteria for a suitable solvent are cost, availability, ease of use and risks/hazards.

The most popular solvents used are butane, naptha and ethanol which can be purchased at many hardware stores and similar outlets.

Some producers use non-traditional solvents such as animal fats, e.g. butter and vegetable oils which are also capable of dissolving cannabinoids and other essential substances within the marijuana plant.

The extraction process is as follows:

  • Raw material (marijuana plant) is put in a glass container with the solvent/s and placed over water.
  • This water is heated: this enables the solvent to distillate the required chemicals, e.g. cannabinoids from the plant.
  • This mixture is then filtered to remove any unwanted sediment.
  • This is allowed to evaporate – with or without using heat, which results in a viscous extract composed of essential oils and the resin.

The aim is to produce cannabis oil which contains these 3 compounds:

  • Cannabinoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Terpenoids

These cause the euphoric state known as a ‘high’ which includes warm, fuzzy feelings, increased sociability, happiness and altered senses. The whole marijuana plant can be used although some producers choose to use only the buds as these contain a greater percentage of THC’s.

There are dangers associated with cannabis oil production which are related to use of solvents. These are highly flammable and likely to cause serious damage if not used in a controlled environment.

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Another risk is toxicity. Some types of solvents are toxic and harmful to health if inhaled or contact with the skin.

It is advisable to produce cannabis oil within a laboratory setting, using the correct equipment and following safety precautions.

Using cannabis oil

There are a variety of ways of using cannabis oil which include adding a drop of oil to a cigarette, smearing it inside a ‘bong’, inhaling vapours from an improvised object, e.g. two knives (known as ‘hot knives’) and adding it to food.

Effects of cannabis oil

Only a small amount is needed to produce a range of effects which can be intense and overwhelming for an inexperienced user.

These effects are much the same as those experienced by smoking marijuana resin or herbal cannabis. But they tend to be stronger due to the higher levels of THC’s.

These effects range from intense joy, elation and talkativeness through to drowsiness, paranoia, depression and laziness. Hallucinations are common and frightening for someone who is not used to the effects of cannabis oil or has consumed a large amount.

CBD Oil: An Introduction

Medical patients swear by it. Researchers are intrigued by it. Government regulators are flustered by it. And investors are head over heels for it.

Medical patients swear by it. Researchers are intrigued by it. Government regulators are flustered by it. And investors are head over heels for it. CBD oil is the It-Medicine of the moment. A few years ago, hardly anyone knew about CBD oil. Today there’s a huge demand for it. Millions of people are taking CBD oil as a health supplement. But what exactly is it? Where does it come from? How is it made? And what should you know before you buy it?

Where Does CBD Oil Come From?

Cannabidiol ( CBD ) is one of more than 100 unique “cannabinoid” compounds that are found in the oily resin of the cannabis plant. The sticky, gooey resin is concentrated on the dense clusters of cannabis flowers, commonly called “buds,” which are covered by tiny, mushroom-shaped “trichomes.” This is where the magic happens.

Trichomes are specialized glandular structures that contain a treasure trove of oily, medicinal compounds, including CBD , tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ), and various aromatic terpenes. Why does cannabis create these oily compounds? What does the resin do for the plant?

The oily trichomes protect the plant from heat and ultraviolet radiation. The oil also has antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties that deter predators. The stickiness of the resin provides another defensive layer by trapping bugs.

As it happens, the same oily resin that protects the health of the plant includes components that are beneficial for human health. CBD , a non-intoxicating compound, has shown promise in treating and managing the symptoms of a broad range of diseases. Ditto for THC , CBD ’s intoxicating cousin.

Resinous Trichomes

CBD oil is extracted from the resinous trichomes of cannabis plants. There are many different cannabis “strains” or varietals. The amount of CBD present in the trichomes will depend on the particular variety of cannabis or hemp. Low resin industrial hemp, which is legally defined as cannabis with less than 0.3 percent THC by dry weight, has fewer trichomes – and therefore less oil – than high-resin cannabis varietals.

But most high resin cannabis strains these days are THC -dominant with little CBD . So choosing the appropriate CBD -rich cannabis chemovar, a variety of cannabis defined by its chemical constituents, is key for extracting CBD oil.

Trichomes are fragile structures that easily break off of the cannabis flower. Even rough handling is enough to shake off the trichomes. Making hashish or “kif” (hashish powder) involves manually removing the resinous trichomes by agitating the flower. Sometimes heat or pressure is applied to partially melt the trichomes together, turning the resin into a congealed slab, referred to as rosin, which can be smoked or ingested.

In addition to the resinous trichomes concentrated on the flowers and to a lesser extent on the leaves of the cannabis plant, there are the tiny sessile trichomes, which dot the stalk, but these contain hardly any oil or CBD . (Shaped like tiny inverted commas, non-glandular hairs without oil also cover the plant’s surface.) CBD is also absent in the roots or the seeds of cannabis and hemp. Companies that claim they derive CBD from hemp stalk or hemp seeds are making false claims.

How Is CBD Oil Made?

To make CBD oil, one must start with CBD -rich plant material. There are several ways to extract CBD oil from cannabis. Each method has its pros and cons. Some are safer and more effective than others.

After it is extracted from the plant and the solvent is removed, the CBD oil may be refined and formulated into a variety of consumable products – edibles, tinctures, gel caps, vape oil cartridges, topicals, beverages, and more.

The purpose of an extraction is to make CBD and other beneficial components of the plant (such as terpenes) available in a highly concentrated form. Because cannabinoids are oily by nature, separating CBD from the plant material will produce a thick, potent oil. The texture and purity of the oil depends largely on the method used to extract it.

CBD and the other plant cannabinoids are chemically classified as “terpenophenolic” compounds. To the non-scientists among us, this means that CBD is soluble in both oil and alcohol. Thus, the process of extracting CBD oil from cannabis often entails the use of a solvent that’s good at dissolving an oil or an alcohol-based compound. Solvents that are commonly used to extract CBD from cannabis include supercritical CO2 , ethanol, hydrocarbons (such as butane) and olive oil.

CO2 Extraction of CBD Oil

CO2 extraction is the most prevalent commercial method – as well as one of the safest ways – of separating CBD and other cannabinoids from cannabis biomass. At room temperature, carbon dioxide is a gas. But under high pressure and fluctuating temperature, CO2 liquifies while still maintaining the fluid dynamics of a gas. In this “supercritical” state, CO2 acts like a solvent, which flushes out the active ingredients from the plant matter.

This method is very effective because each compound can only be extracted by CO2 under specific conditions. Slight changes in temperature or pressure in a supercritical state allows for fine-tuning the extraction of CBD and other desirable plant components.

As the pressure drops, a crude, waxy, CBD -rich substance, golden in color, separates from the gas and deposits into a collection vessel. Afterwards, the golden oil undergoes a process known as “winterization,” which purifies and refines the extract to increase its quality and value. The plant waxes, which are not appropriate to include in certain kinds of products, are filtered out, resulting in a safe, clean, CBD -rich oil that is free of chlorophyll.

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Supercritical CO2 extraction requires expensive equipment and a steep operational learning curve. But unlike combustible solvents, such as ethanol or butane, CO2 poses no danger of fire or explosion.

Ethanol Extraction of CBD Oil

The use of ethanol to extract medicinal compounds from cannabis and other plants has been a common practice in many cultures for centuries. In 1854, the U.S. Pharmacopeia recommended ethanol-based tinctures of “Indian hemp” to treat numerous ailments, including neuralgia, depression, hemorrhage, pain and muscle spasm.

These odiferous tinctures were a standard part of American health care prior to the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which prohibited all forms of cannabis consumption. But homemade cannabis tinctures persisted as an underground folk medicine, particularly in marginalized Latino communities, despite federal law.

In recent years, ethanol has re-emerged as a popular means of extracting cannabis oil, in general, and CBD oil, in particular. Whereas a tincture made from a cannabis extract could be equal in potency to the original flower, a concentrated version of the same tincture will be much more potent. Today, food-grade grain alcohol is a widely used solvent for creating very potent, high-quality CBD -rich oil, which is suitable for oral ingestion.

Ethanol extracts available in medical cannabis dispensaries are typically referred to as Rick Simpson Oil (aka RSO ) or Full-Extract Cannabis Oil ( FECO ). In order to make RSO or FECO , cannabis flower is soaked in ethanol, agitated, and strained; then the residual oil is gently heated until all that remains is a viscous, highly concentrated goo infused with cannabinoids, which can be difficult to dose accurately, given how thick it is.

Often sold in plastic, needleless syringes to make dosing and administration a little easier, RSO should contain the full spectrum of cannabinoids extracted from the plant. This means that a small amount THC will also be present in a CBD -rich ethanol extraction. Consumers are cautioned not to ingest a dose larger than a small grain of rice. With this type of cannabis oil, in particular, it’s always best to start low and go slow.

Hydrocarbon Extraction of CBD Oil

Using hydrocarbon solvents – such as butane, hexane and propane or mixtures thereof – to extract CBD from cannabis has major advantages as well as distinct disadvantages compared to other methods of manufacturing CBD oil. When properly implemented, this extraction technique is a very effective at separating cannabinoids and terpenes from unwanted cannabis components (e.g., chlorophyll), while preserving the unique scent and significant therapeutic attributes of the plant.

Potent cannabis concentrates made with hydrocarbons may resemble tree sap, ear wax, or brittle candy in texture. The product known as “shatter” (so named because of its glass-like appearance and the manner in which it breaks) is consumed via inhalation by using a “dab rig” or a high temperature vaporizer.

But butane and other hydrocarbons are highly flammable, neurotoxic solvents. If these solvents aren’t fully purged from the CBD oil extract, their consumption can be harmful – especially for someone with a compromised immune system. In addition to leaving toxic residues in the oil, unsafe manufacturing processes involving hydrocarbons have been known to cause deadly explosions.

Making Your Own CBD Oil

Project CBD strongly discourages home extraction using flammable solvents. There are much safer options for making a CBD oil extract in one’s own kitchen.

A 2013 study by Luigi L. Romano and Arno Hazekamp evaluated the efficacy and purity of five cannabis extraction solvents, including ethanol, naphtha (a harsh industrial poison that should be avoided), and olive oil. The authors found comparable efficiency between all the solvents but noted that olive oil, a nontoxic solvent, was better at extracting terpenes along with the cannabinoids. Moreover, according to Hazekamp, “You won’t blow yourself up making cannabis-infused olive oil.”

Olive oil extraction is safe, simple and straightforward. It’s also inexpensive. And you can do it yourself. Heating the plant matter in an oven will decarboxylate the cannabinoids, turning THCA into THC and CBDA into CBD . Steep the flower and leaves in the olive oil; then sift, strain, and separate the oil from what’s left of the herb. Cannabis-infused olive oil — whether CBD -rich or THC -dominant — is perishable and should be stored in a cool, dark place so it doesn’t turn rancid.

One can also extract CBD from cannabis by using other lipid solvents, including avocado, coconut or MCT [medium chain triglyceride] oil. Hemp seed oil is another effective extraction solvent and a carrier vehicle that mixes well with CBD .

But be forewarned about CBD product companies that claim they get their CBD from hemp seeds. While hemp seeds are an excellent source of protein-rich, omega 3 fatty acids, the seeds themselves don’t contain CBD , THC or any other cannabinoids. Trace amounts of cannabinoids may be present in oil pressed from hemp seeds if the seed covering, the bract (where resin can cling), isn’t thoroughly rinsed and removed prior to the extraction process.

Unregulated CBD Oil Products

To reiterate: CBD oil in not the same as “hemp oil” or “hemp seed oil.” Some companies are manufacturing inferior products by spiking hemp seed oil with a CBD isolate. Such products lack the synergistic array of beneficial components found in full-spectrum CBD -rich oil.

Unfortunately, there is little oversight for manufacturing hemp-derived CBD products, which can lead to confusion and deception. Many hemp-derived products are mislabeled as to CBD and THC content. And poorly processed CBD oil may be contaminated with dangerous solvent and pesticide residues, thinning agents, corn syrup, artificial flavors and colors, and other toxins.

If possible, it’s better to obtain CBD oil products from licensed dispensaries in states that have legalized cannabis for therapeutic or personal use. These states are likely to have stricter safety standards for CBD oil products than states or countries that refuse to regulate the booming CBD industry. Read the ingredients carefully before purchasing a CBD oil product, and look for evidence of laboratory tests and verification of CBD concentrations when buying a CBD remedy or supplement.

Zoe Sigman is Project CBD ’s Program Director and the Science Editor at Broccoli Magazine.

Copyright, Project CBD . May not be reprinted without permission.